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Classification of Radiation


Radiation is classified into two broad groups:

  1. Ionizing radiation (IR):- capable of causing characteristic changes in atoms or molecules in the body which can result in tissue damage such as cancer. Examples of IR include x-rays and gamma rays.
  2. Non-ionizing radiation (NIR):- doesn't cause these characteristic changes but can prompt molecules to vibrate. This can lead to temperature rises, among other effects. Examples of NIR include ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, visible light, light bulbs, infrared radiation, microwave energy and radiofrequency energy.


Types of Non-Ionizing Radiation and Their Health Effects

Radiation- Energy emitted from a body or source that is transmitted through an intervening medium or space and absorbed by another body.  Transmission is in the form of waves but wave/particle duality under quantum physics.

Radiation is classified as being either non-ionizing or ionizing.  Non-ionizing radiation is longer wavelength/lower frequency lower energy.  While ionizing radiation is short wavelength/high frequency higher energy.

Ionizing Radiation has sufficient energy to produce ions in a matter at the molecular level.  If that matter is a human being significant damage can result including damage to DNA and denaturation of proteins.  This is not to say that non-ionizing radiation can’t cause injury to humans but the injury is generally limited to thermal damage i.e. burns and the like.

 This list is in order of lowest to highest frequency.

         1. ELF (extremely low frequency)       2. Radio Frequencies         3. Microwave Frequencies         

            4. Lasers          5. Infrared       6. Visible Spectrum                 7. Ultraviolet



Non-Ionizing Radiation Type


Health Effects

1. ELF

Power plant or line workers

Inconclusive evidence of leukemia link

  1. Radiofrequency


Occupational Exposures- 

Radar and communications equipment, industrial and commercial ovens

Other Exposures   

  Cell Phones

There is a great deal of controversy regarding potential cancer risks, particularly with cell phone use.  We know that exposure to radio and microwave frequency sources can cause burns and clinically this is what you are most likely to see. 

  1. Microwave Frequency


4. LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Beams of coherent light with single wavelength and frequency

Maybe in the IR, Visible or UV spectrum



Eye is most sensitive to injury from LASER

Four classes by a risk of injury:

1. No damage

2. Low chance of damage due to blink

3. A)Cause injury with direct exposure

     B)Cause injury even when reflected

4.  Requires controls to prevent injury

5. Infrared

Penetrates superficial layers of the skin, causes

Welding, glassmaking, heating and dehydrating processes


thermal injury, a potential for damage to the cornea, iris, lens of the eye

6.  Visible Spectrum


  400 to 750nm wavelengths

  ROYGBIV (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)

  Possibility of retinal injury from 400-500 nm blue frequencies


7. Ultraviolet Radiation

200nm to 400 nm

  Bridge between           Non-Ionizing and Ionizing Radiations

  Three regions

      UV-A 315nm-400nm 

      UV-B 280nm-315nm 

      UV-C ‹280nm 


A and B bands produce biologic effects on the skin and the eyes.  Photokeratitis, conjunctivitis, sunburn, photosensitization reactions, skin cancers

Majority of exposures are to outdoor workers, other exposures include welders, people who work in drying and curing industries and laboratory, kitchen or medical industries exposed to germicidal ultraviolet 


ኤሌክተሪክ እና መግነጢስ መስክ (Electric & Magnetic Fields – EMF)

ኤሌክተሪክ እና መግነጢስ መስክ (Electric & Magnetic Fields – EMF) ኤሌክትሪክ በሚመነጭባቸው፣ በሚተላለፍባቸውና አገልግሎት በሚውልበት  ማንኛውም ቦታ እና ጊዜ ይኖራሉ፡፡ ኤሌክትሪክ በዘመናዊ አኗኗር ዘይቤ ላይ ብርሃን በመስጠት፣ ምግብ እንዳይበላሽ በማቀዝቀዝ፣ ቤትን በማቀዝቀዝና በማሞቅ፣ የምርመራና ህክምና መሳሪያዎች አገልግሎቶች እንዲሰጡባቸው ሀይል በመሆን፣ በምግብ ማብሰል፣ በመገናኛ ቴክኖሎጂ ወዘተ ላይ  አዎንታዊ ሚናውን በመጫወት ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ ዘመናዊው ህይወትም ያለነዚህ መስኮች የማይታሰብ ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡ እና እነዚህ መስኮች ህይወት ያለው ነገር ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ነገር ይኖር ይሆን?

እንዲህ አይነቱን ጥያቄ መልስ ለመስጠት ላለፉት 4 አስርት አመታት ገደማ በብዙ ሺህ የሚቆጠሩ ሳይንሳዊ ጥናቶች በመላው አለም ላይ በበርካታ ዩኒቨርስቲዎችና የምርምር ተቋማት የተለያዩ ዘዴዎችን በመጠቀም በጤና ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ተጽዕኖ ለመዳሰስ ሞክረዋል፡፡ ከፊሉ  በሰው ልጅ ላይ በተከሰቱ በሽታዎች መንስዔያቸውን፣ ከፊሉ በምርምር ላቦራቶሪ ቤተሙከራ ውስጥ እንስሳትን  ለመስኮቹ በማጋለጥና ውጤቱን በማየት እንዲሁም ሌሎቹ የተለያዩ ሴሎችን በማጋለጥ እና ከመስኩ ጋር ያለውን ልዩነት በማገናዘብ የተለያዩ ዘዴዎችን ሞክረዋል፡፡

ከከፍተኛ ሀይል ተሸካሚ መስመሮች፣ ራዳር፣ የኮሙኒኬሽን መረቦች፣ ሞባይል ስልኮች እና ማይክሮዌቭ ምድጃዎች የሚፈልቁት የራዲዮ ፍሪኩዌንሲ ጨረራ ወይም ኤሌክትሮ መግነጢሳዊ መስኮች አዮን ፈጣሪ  ካልሆኑ የጨረራ ምድብ ውስጥ ሲሆኑ ለበርካታ አመታት ለመገንዘብ እንደተቻለው ለነዚህ የጨረራ አይነቶች ለከፍተኛ መጠን መጋለጥ ብቻ መቃጠልን፣ አይን ግርዶሽን፣ ጊዚያዊ መሀንነትን እና ሌሎች ጉዳትን  እንደሚያስከትሉ የሚታወቅ ሲሆን እነዚህኑን ዝቅተኛ መጠን ያላቸውን የጨረራ አይነቶች የሚያመነጩ መሳሪያዎች ብዛት በከፍተኛ መጠን መጨመርና ለረጅም ጊዜም ለዝቅተኛ መጠን ጨረራ መጋለጥ የያስከትሉት ተጽዕኖም አከራካሪ እና ሳይንሳዊ ትኩረትን  የሚሻ  ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡

የአለም ጤና ድርጅትም እስከዛሬ ድረስ ለዝቅተኛ መጠን ኤሌክትሪክ እና መግነጢሳዊ መስኮች መጋለጥ የሰው ልጅ ጤና ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ችግር መኖሩን ማስረጃ እንዳላገኘ የጥናቶቹን ውጤት ተንተርሶ ድምዳሜ ላይ ደርሷል፡፡

በዓለምም ሆነ በሀገራችን ከቴክኖሎጂ እድገትና መስፋፋት ጋር ተያይዞ ወደ ሀገር ውስጥ እየገቡና አገልግሎት እየሰጡ ያሉት አዮን ፈጣሪ ያልሆኑ ጨረራ አመንጭዎች ቁጥራቸው በመጨመር ላይ ሲሆን በተለይ ከፍተኛ መጠን በሚያመነጩት ላይ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ ክትትልና ቁጥጥር ማድረጉ ግድ ይላል፡፡


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